eVox® Qualitative EEG“Protect the brain function you have and grow to your full potential.” ~ Studio Team
eVox® Brain Mapping: a revolution in brain diagnostic technology! Benefit from a sophisticated suite of in-office electrophysiology, ERP and EEG memory loss biomarker tests without the need for medical referral & gain a comprehensive analysis of your unique brain health today!
The miracle that is your brain
Your brain only weighs 3 pounds, generates enough electricity to power a lightbulb, and contains so many neurons that it would take you over 3, 000 years to count them all! Traveling at 150 mph, signals zoom along our neuronal pathways thousands of times a day to fire up every activity that we undertake (reading, walking, swimming, even sleeping), whilst learning something new literally changes the structure of our brain! Our brain elegantly governs every function in our body via a vast, interconnected neuronal & physiological network, helping us laugh, run, sleep, think, eat & engage in every pleasure that life has to offer on a second-by-second basis. Without a healthy brain, we simply cannot function.
But what happens when our brains aren’t well?
Age-related cognitive decline remains the greatest risk factor out there for memory loss & dementia, with the average 20-something exhibiting superior memory skills to those of an average 45-year-old. As we age, we can expect to experience some cognitive decline in speed, language, visuospatial, memory & executive functioning abilities, but for many of us, that decline can become something very serious. Around 50 million people worldwide suffer from dementia, for example, with progressive degenerative Alzheimer’s Disease accounting for 70-80% of all dementia cases.
The need to spot degenerative cognitive diseases like dementia at the earliest possible stage subsequently remains a patients’ best hope for maximal quality of life, so early detection subsequently remains paramount if we want to keep enjoying our incredible brains as long as we can.
eVox® – protecting your most valuable resource
As a result, your brain – a complex, elegant, intricate & sophisticated organ – deserves a sophisticated level of care in order that we remain as optimally healthy & happy as we can be. Until recently, however, diagnosing cognitive decline & dysfunction generally relied on self-reports & effort-based computerized testing, both of which lack objectivity & also frequently failed to detect the onset of dysfunction at an early stage (the stage when the diagnosis is most beneficial because interventions tend to be most effective).
That was until eVox® Brain Mapping technology made sophisticated objective brain mapping not only a reality but an accessible, rapid, effective one. Not only is the test rapid, non-invasive & pain-free, but it also requires no medical referral & can be performed in our offices, so you could even walk into the Doctors Studio and book yours today.
eVox® Brain Mapping: The Memory Test Trifecta
The eVox® system offers a convenient, and accessible, a medical device that delivers objective memory loss biomarkers to support the recognition of pre-clinical dementia conditions, identifying the root cause of memory loss.
eVox® Brain Mapping Benefits:
The benefits of eVox® are impressive, including:
- The early detection of Mild Cognitive Decline.
- Differentiation between cognitive decline and stress-related memory changes.
- Ability to monitor treatment efficacy.
- Tracking of memory and brain function data over time.
Let’s take a closer look at some of the most specific, and highly sophisticated, functionalities of the eVox® Brain Map suite; three brain electrophysiology tests known as the EEG (electroencephalography), ERP (Event-Related Potential), and ECG (Electrocardiogram).
EEG is a non-invasive test often utilized in the clinical evaluation of memory loss diagnosis. Employed extensively in clinical settings, EEG’s allow us to detect & measure brainwaves as an indicator of brain function. You might already be familiar with alpha, beta, delta, or theta waves, which are essentially frequencies (similar to a radio) that our brains tune into, depending on how calm, happy, excited, tired, awake, or stressed we might be.
Our brain waves play a deterministic role in our thoughts, emotions & behaviors. Ideally our brains operate in the ‘Goldilocks’ zone – not too hyper or sluggish – but often we can experience asynchronicity or dysfunction in this brainwave activity, detrimentally affecting our intellectual, cognitive & emotional performance. Measuring brainwaves (synchronized electrical pulses) using an EEG provides us with a valuable window into brain health, with the eVox® Brain Map EEG pinpointing any observable specific anomalies or dysfunctions in synchronized electrical pulsatory activity.
Until recently, EEGs lay out of the reach of many practicing physicians due to their high cost, sophistication & complexity of data interpretation. These barriers, however, have now largely been removed via their inclusion into the eVox® Brain Mapping system.
ERPs (Event-Related Potentials)
ERP’s, or event-related potentials, measure waveforms – in other words, time-locked neuronal responses that are generated in response to specific events or stimuli. The time delay or latency, between stimulus onset and a patient’s physical response, reflects brain processing speed, while waveform amplitude reflects neuronal recruitment and subsequent activation (i.e., how many neurons are successfully working together to process information). The eVox® Brain Map allows us to effectively measure waveforms, observing how efficiently your brain constantly prunes, redirects, processes & selects information. These observations are then used to rapidly identify any instances of lower-than-average reaction speed, providing a valuable early data-led indicator of cognitive decline or dysfunction.
The power of electrophysiological markers
Normal and productive brain function relies heavily on a complex array of interconnected networks that facilitate communication within and across brain structures. When we focus on studying potential memory loss, three specific electrophysiology biomarkers – as measured by the eVox® – are particularly pertinent: the P300 component of ERP tests, Peak Alpha Frequency, and Quantitative EEG brain function. All three biomarkers are easily & rapidly obtainable using the eVox® System.
Let’s break those markers down for a closer look.
P300 component of event-related potentials
Fundamental elements of memory involve the degree of attention to a stimulus and the subsequent encoding of information for storage and retrieval. Two specific ERP components useful in measuring these abilities are known as ‘P300a’ and ‘P300b’, both of which are principally involved when we make decisions. P300b, in particular, has been exceptionally well-studied in the context of memory loss disorders such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), with researchers reporting that longer P300b latency measures and low amplitudes (in other words, a slower, weaker decision-making ability) are valid indicators of mild AD. Figure 2 (below) illustrates how individuals with MCI progressors (indicators of mild cognitive impairment) score far lower on P300b scores, for example than a control group who exhibits no MCI.
P300b metrics are extremely valuable because they demonstrate superior sensitivity over conventional assessments such as the MMSE (Mini-Mental State Evaluation) in detecting early pre-clinical memory loss.
Figure 2. Grand average ERPs for patients with MCI who progressed in dementia symptoms and, patients with MCI who did not progress, and control subjects. MCI Progressors show elongated P300b latency and reduced P300b amplitude.
Peak Alpha Frequency
When it comes to brain wave activity, the Alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) is the most dominant EEG frequency found in the brain. Alpha waves powerfully mediate positive mental states, enabling us to manage stress & anxiety, and promoting feelings of calm. The Peak Alpha Frequency (PAF) or posterior dominant rhythm is largely generated by the thalamus and is used as a reliable indicator of thalamocortical network activity. In fact, PAF is often referred to as the ‘pacemaker of the brain’ given its reliability as a measure of a patients’ information processing capacity.
EEG studies have found that PAF rises from childhood to adolescence, and then decreases slowly with age. Regardless of age, however, individuals with strong working memory abilities tend to exhibit greater PAF activity, whilst abnormally low PAF levels (< 8 Hz) are generally exhibited by patients who suffer from vascular dementia & Alzheimer’s disease (Figure 3).
Figure 3. EEG spectral features discriminate between AD, VaD, and controls. Dementia patients show hallmark qEEG slowing and reduced PAF
Slowed PAF typically correlates with the loss of hippocampal volume (the hippocampus is a part of our brain that governs our memory & learning abilities), while a general decrease in Beta power can be correlated with dementia. Using the eVox® to measure & observe PAF can thus provide a powerful electrophysiological biomarker of potential early-stage / pre-clinical dementia.
Quantitative EEG brain function
A quantitative EEG (qEEG) moves beyond the conventional visual inspection of EEG to perform an objective analysis of brain function. Individual digital EEG data are statistically analyzed, with ensuing results compared to a database that compares the patients’ results to those of a normative (‘normal’ or average) database and is then used to provide a differential diagnosis (a list of potential causes for the observed qEEG readings observed in the patient). Distinct differences in resting-state qEEG profiles exist between people with dementia diagnoses and age-matched controls, meaning that qEEG can offer a powerful indicator of potential dysfunction or disease. qEEG brain maps, as utilized as a part of the eVox® Brain Mapping system, are also specific and sensitive enough to discriminate between different dementia diagnoses (for example, AD, or vascular dementia).
Whilst ECG’s have traditionally been associated with measurements & diagnoses of cardiovascular & heart-related disease & function, the eVox® utilises ECG technology to effectively measure the health of the ANS (Autonomic Nervous System).
What does the ANS tell us about brain health? Well, the ANS controls all automatic functions such as breathing or digestion, so provides us with valuable data regarding our basic physiologic & neuronal functioning. ECG’s allow us to observe, for example, whether our ANS – your nervous system – is stressed, sluggish, or balanced, and whether the vast interconnected framework of neurons that link the brain & body is functioning as efficiently as it should be.
What Can I Expect from an eVox® Brain Mapping scan?
The eVox® Brain Map offers an incredible painless, non-invasive, and fast technological means of mapping brain activity. At the Doctors Studio, we utilize the eVox® Brain Mapping technology in-office, which means no need for a referral or lengthy waits for specialist appointments.
From the outset of the eVox® Brain Map scan, you will be asked to wear an EEG cap (which looks and feels a bit like a swim cap!), after which you will be asked to complete a series of simple exercises. During this activity, your brain activity is recorded, with subsequent data providing us with detailed insight into what we call the Memory Test Trifecta – biochemical, brain electrophysiology & behavioral effect results – which together combine to provide a comprehensive picture of the unique health & functioning of your brain.
If spotted early enough, many causes of memory loss can be reversible. But if left unchecked, these problems can increase your risk of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and other causes of dementia. Your brain is your most valuable resource, so if you feel that the eVox® Brain Map could help you or someone you love, contact us today to find out more!
You can not fix a problem you don’t understand. Advanced diagnostics is often necessary to get at the root cause. Once the root cause is identified, the solution becomes possible.
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